The end of the Napoleonic Wars, and the Industrial Revolution, brought high levels of unemployment and poverty in their wake. This in turn led to an increased crime rate as many struggled simply to survive - as well as the small proportion of the population who were always criminally minded.
English law at the time was harsh, with more than 200 crimes punishable by death.
Prisons were overcrowded, so initially the British government made use of decommissioned naval ships as floating prisons. (Later South Australia had a floating boys' reformatory, the Fitzjames.)
"Transportation" - the sending of convicted criminals into exile in British colonies - actually began in the 1600s, when the first convicts were taken to America and the West Indies. The discovery of Australia in 1770 provided the opportunity to send criminals to the most distant land then known.
A person convicted of a capital punishment (a crime punishable by death) could have the sentence converted to fourteen years in a penal colony. Those convicted of a non-capital offense could have the sentence converted to seven years. However, very few convicts ever returned to Britain, and in fact usually had the opportunity for a better life in the new land.
The First Fleet, eleven convict ships under Australia's first governor (Arthur Philip) left Portsmouth on 13 May 1787 and arrived at Botany Bay on 26 January 1788 - the date now commemorated as Australia Day.
There were about 778 convicts - mostly men - in this group. Finding Botany Bay unsuitable for a colony, the settlement moved north to Port Jackson - modern day Sydney.
Subsequently other penal settlements were established at Norfolk Island and in Queensland, Tasmania and Western Australia. By the end of the convict era approximately 160,000 men and women had been sent to Australias
|New South Wales||1788 - 1850|
|Queensland||1824 - 1839|
|Tasmania||1803 - 1853|
|Victoria||1803 - 1849|
|Western Australia||1850 - 1868|
Ex-convict Emanuel Solomon became a prosperous Adelaide merchant and be-friended Mary MacKillop (B 46875/2)
Naturally there were some convicts who made their way to South Australia. This included a handful of escaped convicts, but also quite a number of convicts who had completed their sentences came to settle here, usually hiding their convict past due to stigma. This ranged from the prosperous shipping agents, Emanuel and Vaiben Solomon, down to a number of farmers around the south coast.
Further information about former convicts settling in South Australia can be found in Paul Sendziuk's paper 'No convicts here: reconsidering South Australia's foundation myth', in Turning points: chapters in South Australian history (2012).
Criminals who were convicted of major crimes in South Australia were sent as convicts to the eastern colonies until 1851. An index to these local convicts is available on the Find My Past database - (available in the Library or by private subscription) and on Family Historian, Graham Jaunay's website. In some cases the index includes biographical information such as name of spouse, number of children, religion etc.
General information about South Australian convicts sent to the other colonies is contained in the pamphlet, SA convicts sentenced to transportation 1837-1851 by Graham Jaunay (1995).
William Basham, son of a convict
When Xenophon Basham of London was convicted for passing a forged banknote, and sentenced to be taken to Tasmania as a convict, his wife and children followed him.
The family became successful farmers, and in 1838 William Basham, with his wife and children, settled in South Australia, establishing a prosperous farm at Hindmarsh Valley, and later was the owner of a paddlesteamer and a flourmill on the south coast.
The State Library specialises in South Australian historical resources and can help family history researchers of all kinds.
A staff member is stationed at the Family History service on weekdays from 10am to 5pm. At other times staff at the Information Desk can help you. Check the Library opening hours.
If you are unable to get to the Library in person, phone us on (08) 8207 7250 or email your question to our Ask Us service.